The following studies used Smart Tube products to bank their samples

   

Tables of the antibodies they used to analyze these banked samples can be downloaded in PDF and Excel format

 


           
 
Reference
Antibody Table
Smart Tube Products Used
Abstract
 
CD56 Expression Marks Human Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Divergence from a Shared NK Cell and Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell Developmental Pathway.

Chen et al
Immunity, 2018
LINK TO ARTICLE
See who is talking about it

table
coming soon
According to the established model of murine innate lymphoid cell (ILC) development, helper ILCs develop separately from natural killer (NK) cells. However, it is unclear how helper ILCs and NK cells develop in humans. Here we elucidated key steps of NK cell, ILC2, and ILC3 development within human tonsils using ex vivo molecular and functional profiling and lineage differentiation assays. We demonstrated that while tonsillar NK cells, ILC2s, and ILC3s originated from a common CD34 −CD117 + ILC precursor pool, final steps of ILC2 development deviated independently and became mutually exclusive from those of NK cells and ILC3s, whose developmental pathways overlapped. Moreover, we identified a CD34 −CD117 + ILC precursor population that expressed CD56 and gave rise to NK cells and ILC3s but not to ILC2s. These data support a model of human ILC development distinct from the mouse, whereby human NK cells and ILC3s share a common developmental pathway separate from ILC2s.
           
 
Single-cell mass cytometry reveals distinct populations of brain myeloid cells in mouse neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration models.

Bahareh et al
Nature Neuroscience, 2018
LINK TO ARTICLE
See who is talking about it


Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration may represent two poles of brain pathology. Brain myeloid cells, particularly microglia, play key roles in these conditions. We employed single-cell mass cytometry (CyTOF) to compare myeloid cell populations in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis, the R6/2 model of Huntington’s disease (HD) and the mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (mSOD1) model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We identified three myeloid cell populations exclusive to the CNS and present in each disease model. Blood-derived monocytes comprised five populations and migrated to the brain in EAE, but not in HD and ALS models. Single-cell analysis resolved differences in signaling and cytokine production within similar myeloid populations in EAE compared to HD and ALS models. Moreover, these analyses highlighted α5 integrin on myeloid cells as a potential therapeutic target for neuroinflammation. Together, these findings illustrate how neuropathology may differ between inflammatory and degenerative brain disease.
           
 
An immune clock of human pregnancy

Aghaeepour et al
Science Immunology
September 2017, Cover
LINK TO ARTICLE
See who is talking about it


The maintenance of pregnancy relies on finely tuned immune adaptations. We demonstrate that these adaptations are precisely timed, reflecting an immune clock of pregnancy in women delivering at term. Using mass cytometry, the abundance and functional responses of all major immune cell subsets were quantified in serial blood samples collected throughout pregnancy. Cell signaling–based Elastic Net, a regularized regression method adapted from the elastic net algorithm, was developed to infer and prospectively validate a predictive model of interrelated immune events that accurately captures the chronology of pregnancy. Model components highlighted existing knowledge and revealed previously unreported biology, including a critical role for the interleukin-2–dependent STAT5ab signaling pathway in modulating T cell function during pregnancy. These findings unravel the precise timing of immunological events occurring during a term pregnancy and provide the analytical framework to identify immunological deviations implicated in pregnancy-related pathologies.
           
 
Deep Immune Profiling of an Arginine-Enriched Nutritional Intervention in Patients Undergoing Surgery

Aghaeepour et al
Journal of Immunology, 2017
LINK TO ARTICLE
See who is talking about it


Application of high-content immune profiling technologies has enormous potential to advance medicine. Whether these technologies reveal pertinent biology when implemented in interventional clinical trials is an important question. The beneficial effects of preoperative arginine-enriched dietary supplements (AES) are highly context specific, as they reduce infection rates in elective surgery, but possibly increase morbidity in critically ill patients. This study combined single-cell mass cytometry with the multiplex analysis of relevant plasma cytokines to comprehensively profile the immune-modifying effects of this much-debated intervention in patients undergoing surgery. An elastic net algorithm applied to the high-dimensional mass cytometry dataset identified a cross-validated model consisting of 20 interrelated immune features that separated patients assigned to AES from controls. The model revealed wide-ranging effects of AES on innate and adaptive immune compartments. Notably, AES increased STAT1 and STAT3 signaling responses in lymphoid cell subsets after surgery, consistent with enhanced adaptive mechanisms that may protect against postsurgical infection. Unexpectedly, AES also increased ERK and P38 MAPK signaling responses in monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which was paired with their pronounced expansion. These results provide novel mechanistic arguments as to why AES may exert context-specific beneficial or adverse effects in patients with critical illness. This study lays out an analytical framework to distill high-dimensional datasets gathered in an interventional clinical trial into a fairly simple model that converges with known biology and provides insight into novel and clinically relevant cellular mechanisms.
           
 
Systemic Immunity Is Required for Effective Cancer Immunotherapy

Spitzer et al
Cell, 2017
LINK TO ARTICLE
See who is talking about it


Immune responses involve coordination across cell types and tissues. However, studies in cancer immunotherapy have focused heavily on local immune responses in the tumor microenvironment. To investigate immune activity more broadly, we performed an organism-wide study in genetically engineered cancer models using mass cytometry. We analyzed immune responses in several tissues after immunotherapy by developing intuitive models for visualizing single-cell data with statistical inference. Immune activation was evident in the tumor and systemically shortly after effective therapy was administered. However, during tumor rejection, only peripheral immune cells sustained their proliferation. This systemic response was coordinated across tissues and required for tumor eradication in several immunotherapy models. An emergent population of peripheral CD4 T cells conferred protection against new tumors and was significantly expanded in patients responding to immunotherapy. These studies demonstrate the critical impact of systemic immune responses that drive tumor rejection.
           
 
Expression of specific inflammasome gene modules stratifies older individuals into two extreme clinical and immunological states

Furman et al
Nature Medicine, 2017
LINK TO ARTICLE
See who is talking about it


Low-grade, chronic inflammation has been associated with many diseases of aging, but the mechanisms responsible for producing this inflammation remain unclear. Inflammasomes can drive chronic inflammation in the context of an infectious disease or cellular stress, and they trigger the maturation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Here we find that the expression of specific inflammasome gene modules stratifies older individuals into two extremes: those with constitutive expression of IL-1β, nucleotide metabolism dysfunction, elevated oxidative stress, high rates of hypertension and arterial stiffness; and those without constitutive expression of IL-1β, who lack these characteristics. Adenine and N4-acetylcytidine, nucleotide-derived metabolites that are detectable in the blood of the former group, prime and activate the NLRC4 inflammasome, induce the production of IL-1β, activate platelets and neutrophils and elevate blood pressure in mice. In individuals over 85 years of age, the elevated expression of inflammasome gene modules was associated with all-cause mortality. Thus, targeting inflammasome components may ameliorate chronic inflammation and various other age-associated conditions.
           
 
Application of phospho-CyTOF to characterize immune activation in patients with sickle cell disease in an ex vivo model of thrombosis

Glassberg et al
Journal of Immunological Methods, 2017
LINK TO ARTICLE
See who is talking about it


Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in the beta globin gene, and inflammation plays a key role in driving many aspects of disease pathology. Early immune activation is believed to be associated with hemodynamic stresses and thrombus formation as cells traffic through blood vessels. We applied an extracorporeal perfusion system to model these effects ex vivo, and combined this with a phospho-CyTOF workflow to comprehensively evaluate single-cell signatures of early activation across all major circulating immune subsets. These approaches showed immune activation following passage through the perfusion chamber, most notably in monocytes, which exhibited platelet aggregation and significantly elevated expression of multiple phospho-proteins. Overall, these studies outline a robust and broadly applicable workflow to leverage phospho-CyTOF to characterize immune activation in response to ex vivo or in vivo perturbations and may facilitate identification of novel therapeutic targets in SCD and other inflammatory diseases.
           
 
Multicenter Systems Analysis of Human Blood Reveals Immature Neutrophils in Males and During Pregnancy

Blazkova et al
Journal of Immunology, 2017
LINK TO ARTICLE
See who is talking about it


Despite clear differences in immune system responses and in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases between males and females, there is little understanding of the processes involved. In this study, we identified a gene signature of immature-like neutrophils, characterized by the overexpression of genes encoding for several granule-containing proteins, which was found at higher levels (up to 3-fold) in young (20–30 y old) but not older (60 to >89 y old) males compared with females. Functional and phenotypic characterization of peripheral blood neutrophils revealed more mature and responsive neutrophils in young females, which also exhibited an elevated capacity in neutrophil extracellular trap formation at baseline and upon microbial or sterile autoimmune stimuli. The expression levels of the immature-like neutrophil signature increased linearly with pregnancy, an immune state of increased susceptibility to certain infections. Using mass cytometry, we also find increased frequencies of immature forms of neutrophils in the blood of women during late pregnancy. Thus, our findings show novel sex differences in innate immunity and identify a common neutrophil signature in males and in pregnant women.
           
 
Mapping the Fetomaternal Peripheral Immune System at Term Pregnancy

Fragiadakis et al
Journal of Immunology, 2016
LINK TO ARTICLE
See who is talking about it


Preterm labor and infections are the leading causes of neonatal deaths worldwide. During pregnancy, immunological cross talk between the mother and her fetus is critical for the maintenance of pregnancy and the delivery of an immunocompetent neonate. A precise understanding of healthy fetomaternal immunity is the important first step to identifying dysregulated immune mechanisms driving adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes. This study combined single-cell mass cytometry of paired peripheral and umbilical cord blood samples from mothers and their neonates with a graphical approach developed for the visualization of high-dimensional data to provide a high-resolution reference map of the cellular composition and functional organization of the healthy fetal and maternal immune systems at birth. The approach enabled mapping of known phenotypical and functional characteristics of fetal immunity (including the functional hyperresponsiveness of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the global blunting of innate immune responses). It also allowed discovery of new properties that distinguish the fetal and maternal immune systems. For example, examination of paired samples revealed differences in endogenous signaling tone that are unique to a mother and her offspring, including increased ERK1/2, MAPK-activated protein kinase 2, rpS6, and CREB phosphorylation in fetal Tbet+CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and CD56loCD16+ NK cells and decreased ERK1/2, MAPK-activated protein kinase 2, and STAT1 phosphorylation in fetal intermediate and nonclassical monocytes. This highly interactive functional map of healthy fetomaternal immunity builds the core reference for a growing data repository that will allow inferring deviations from normal associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.
           
 
Impact of the microbial derived short chain fatty acid propionate on host susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections in vivo.

Ciarlo et al
Scientific Reports, 2016
LINK TO ARTICLE
See who is talking about it


Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by intestinal microbes mediate anti-inflammatory effects, but whether they impact on antimicrobial host defenses remains largely unknown. This is of particular concern in light of the attractiveness of developing SCFA-mediated therapies and considering that SCFAs work as inhibitors of histone deacetylases which are known to interfere with host defenses. Here we show that propionate, one of the main SCFAs, dampens the response of innate immune cells to microbial stimulation, inhibiting cytokine and NO production by mouse or human monocytes/macrophages, splenocytes, whole blood and, less efficiently, dendritic cells. In proof of concept studies, propionate neither improved nor worsened morbidity and mortality parameters in models of endotoxemia and infections induced by gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae), gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and Candida albicans. Moreover, propionate did not impair the efficacy of passive immunization and natural immunization. Therefore, propionate has no significant impact on host susceptibility to infections and the establishment of protective anti-bacterial responses. These data support the safety of propionate-based therapies, either via direct supplementation or via the diet/microbiota, to treat non-infectious inflammation-related disorders, without increasing the risk of infection.
           
 
Silver nanoparticles for the detection of cell surface antigens in mass cytometry

Schulz et al
Cytometry Part A, 2016
LINK TO ARTICLE
See who is talking about it


Mass cytometry has pioneered >40-parameter single-cell analyses that allow for the characterization of complex cellular networks at unprecedented depth. Up to 135 parameters can be simultaneously detected, but limited availability of metal tags suitable for labeling of specific probes prevents optimal exploitation of the analytical capacity of mass cytometers. To this end, we here establish the application of elemental silver nanoparticles (AgNP) of different size for reporting cell surface antigens on human leukocytes in mass cytometry assays. The mass channels at 107 Da and 109 Da are uniquely occupied by silver isotopes and do not interfere with other mass cytometry reagents. Streptavidin-coated AgNP (SA-AgNP) facilitated distinct and specific detection of various antigens, such as CD8, CD244 and CD294 on peripheral blood leukocytes pre-incubated with respective biotinylated primary antibodies. Signal intensities elicited by 40 nm-sized AgNP allowed specific detection of the low abundance antigen CD25 on both, peripheral blood regulatory T cells and CD25loCD127+ CD4+ T cells, enabling their distinct clustering in viSNE plots. SA-AgNP were of high elemental purity, showed minor background binding to cells in immunoassays, and were compatible with previously established staining protocols for PBMC and leukocytes, facilitating their use in complex mass cytometry panels. Considering the synthesis of AgNP from isotopically purified silver, the usage of AgNP extends the analytical capacity of mass cytometry panels by one, prospectively two, additional parameters, suitable for the detection of cellular targets of low abundance.
           
 
An interactive reference framework for modeling a dynamic immune system

Spitzer et al
Science, 2015
LINK TO ARTICLE
See who is talking about it


Immune cells function in an interacting hierarchy that coordinates the activities of various cell types according to genetic and environmental contexts. We developed graphical approaches to construct an extensible immune reference map from mass cytometry data of cells from different organs, incorporating landmark cell populations as flags on the map to compare cells from distinct samples. The maps recapitulated canonical cellular phenotypes and revealed reproducible, tissue-specific deviations. The approach revealed influences of genetic variation and circadian rhythms on immune system structure, enabled direct comparisons of murine and human blood cell phenotypes, and even enabled archival fluorescence-based flow cytometry data to be mapped onto the reference framework. This foundational reference map provides a working definition of systemic immune organization to which new data can be integrated to reveal deviations driven by genetics, environment, or pathology.
           
 
Mass cytometric functional profiling of acute myeloid leukemia defines cell cycle and immunophenotypic properties that correlate with known responses to therapy

Behbehani et al
Cancer Discovery, 2015
LINK TO ARTICLE
See who is talking about it


Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by a high relapse rate that has been attributed to the quiescence of leukemia stem cells (LSCs), which renders them resistant to chemotherapy. However, this hypothesis is largely supported by indirect evidence and fails to explain the large differences in relapse rates across AML subtypes. To address this, bone marrow aspirates from 41 AML patients and five healthy donors were analyzed by high-dimensional mass cytometry. All patients displayed immunophenotypic and intracellular signaling abnormalities within CD34+CD38low populations and several karyotype and genotype-specific surface marker patterns were identified. The immunophenotypic stem and early progenitor cell populations from patients with clinically favorable core-binding factor AML demonstrated a five-fold higher fraction of cells in S-phase compared to other AML samples. Conversely, LSCs in less clinically favorable FLT3-ITD AML exhibited dramatic reductions in S-phase fraction. Mass cytometry also allowed direct observation of the in vivo effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy.
           
 
Clinical recovery from surgery correlates with single-cell immune signatures

Gaudilliere et al
Science Translational Medicine
September 2014, Cover
LINK TO ARTICLE
See who is talking about it


Delayed recovery from surgery causes personal suffering and substantial societal and economic costs. Whether immune mechanisms determine recovery after surgical trauma remains ill-defined. Single-cell mass cytometry was applied to serial whole-blood samples from 32 patients undergoing hip replacement to comprehensively characterize the phenotypic and functional immune response to surgical trauma. The simultaneous analysis of 14,000 phosphorylation events in precisely phenotyped immune cell subsets revealed uniform signaling responses among patients, demarcating a surgical immune signature. When regressed against clinical parameters of surgical recovery, including functional impairment and pain, strong correlations were found with STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription), CREB (adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate response element–binding protein), and NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signaling responses in subsets of CD14+ monocytes (R = 0.7 to 0.8, false discovery rate less than 0.01). These sentinel results demonstrate the capacity of mass cytometry to survey the human immune system in a relevant clinical context. The mechanistically derived immune correlates point to diagnostic signatures, and potential therapeutic targets, that could postoperatively improve patient recovery.
           
 
Single-cell mass cytometry adapted to measurements of the cell cycle

Behbehani et al
Cytometry Part A
July 2012, Cover, Paper of the Year
LINK TO ARTICLE
See who is talking about it


Mass cytometry is a recently introduced technology that utilizes transition element isotope-tagged antibodies for protein detection on a single-cell basis. By circumventing the limitations of emission spectral overlap associated with fluorochromes utilized in traditional flow cytometry, mass cytometry currently allows measurement of up to 40 parameters per cell. Recently, a comprehensive mass cytometry analysis was described for the hematopoietic differentiation program in human bone marrow from a healthy donor. The current study describes approaches to delineate cell cycle stages utilizing 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IdU) to mark cells in S phase, simultaneously with antibodies against cyclin B1, cyclin A, and phosphorylated histone H3 (S28) that characterize the other cell cycle phases. Protocols were developed in which an antibody against phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (Rb) at serines 807 and 811 was used to separate cells in G0 and G1 phases of the cell cycle. This mass cytometry method yielded cell cycle distributions of both normal and cancer cell populations that were equivalent to those obtained by traditional fluorescence cytometry techniques. We applied this to map the cell cycle phases of cells spanning the hematopoietic hierarchy in healthy human bone marrow as a prelude to later studies with cancers and other disorders of this lineage.

 

Disclaimer: While Smart Tube Inc. uses reasonable efforts to provide accurate information, Smart Tube Inc. makes no warranties or representations as to the accuracy of the Content of this page and Content this page links to and assumes no liability or responsibility for any error or omission in the Content. Use of this Content and this website is at your own risk. All Content is provided "as is" and "as available". Neither Smart Tube, Inc. nor any of its affiliated or related companies, nor any of the employees, agents, content providers or licensors of any of them makes any representations or warranty of any kind regarding the website smarttubeinc.com, the Content, advertising material, information, and/or results that may be obtained from use of smarttubeinc.com or such Content or services. All express or implied warranties, including without limitation warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, warranties against infringement, and warranties smarttubeinc.com will meet your requirements, be uninterrupted, timely, secure or error free, are specifically disclaimed.